COMMON VOCABULARY IN EYE REPORTS
By: Carmen Willings
The vocabulary found in eye reports is just jargon to those unfamiliar with the terminology. Although not exhaustive, the following is a list of common vocabulary words that can be found in eye reports. Let me know if there are additional words you would like listed for quick reference!
The ability of the eye to adjust its focus for seeing at different distances by changing the shape of the lens through action of the ciliary muscles. Occurs through a process of ciliary muscle contraction and zonular relaxation that causes the elastic-like lens to "round up" and increase its optical power.
Term used to describe someone that was sighted prior to becoming blind. It is a loss or impairment of vision that occurs after birth, usually as a result of an accident or disease.
The ability to see with both eyes at the same time. Blending of the separate images seen by each eye into one composite image. It results in three-dimensional perception.
The inability to see; the absence or severe reduction of vision. **Many people who meet the definition of blind still have some useable vision. **
Reduced ability to discriminate between colors, especially shades of red and green. Usually hereditary.
A word describing any condition present at birth.
Term used to describe someone who has been blind since birth.
The movement, as an object approaches, of both eyes toward each other in an effort to maintain fusion of separate images.
A lens that bends light rays inward and is used to correct hyperopia. It is also called a plus lens.
Doll's Eye Phenomenon
An automatic reaction that occurs during the first and second weeks of life. Rapid turning of the infant's head in a horizontal or vertical plane elicits a response of the child's eyes rotating to the opposite direction.
The surgical procedure consisting of removal of the entire eyeball.
A tendency of the eye to turn inward.
A form of strabismus in which one or both eyes deviate inward.
A tendency of the eye to turn outward.
A form of strabismus in which one or both eyes deviate outward.
Tendency of one eye to assume the major function of seeing, being assisted by the less dominant eye.
Field of Vision
The area of extent of physical space visible to an eye held in a fixed position. Its average extent is approximately 65 degrees upward (superior), 75 degrees downward (inferior), 60 degrees inward (nasal), and 95 degrees outward (temporal) when the eye is in the straight-forward position.
Particles that float in the vitreous and cast shadows on the retina; seen as spots, cobwebs, spiders, etc. It occurs normally with aging or with vitreous detachment, retinal tears, or inflammation.
The position on the principal axis of a lens system where parallel light rays are brought to a point focus.
Condition in which some useful vision may or may not be present but in which the individual uses tactile and auditory channels most effectively for learning.
The power of coordinating the images received by the two eyes into a single mental image.
The upward deviation of one eye.
The downward deviation of one eye.
An object is in focus when it is being seen most clearly.
A word ending meaning inflammation.
For a student to be determined legally blind, the corrected vision in the student's better eye is determined to be worse than 20/200. There are different degrees of blindness. The range is from 20/200 after correction to “no light perception” or “nil”. A visual field no greater than 20 degrees in the better eye is also considered legally blind.
Physiologic process that adjusts the eye to bright light levels.
Low vision describes a serious loss of vision that cannot be corrected by medical or surgical procedures, or with conventional eyeglasses. Eye care specialists describe low vision in terms of acuity and visual field. The only consistency in low vision is that there are many inconsistencies as conditions effect people in different ways.
An abnormally small eyeball.
Sight through one eye only, typically caused by injury or enucleation.
A condition in which visual acuity is diminished at night and in dim light.
Occlusion or Patching
Where one eye is covered to develop the sight in the "lazy eye".
Limited sight which cannot be corrected by glasses or low vision aids. It is a term used to indicate visual acuity of 20/70 to 20/200 but also used to describe visual impairment in which usable vision is present.
The perception of objects, motion, or color outside the direct line of vision or by other than the central retina.
The use of a laser to burn or destroy selected intraocular structures, such as intraocular tumors or abnormal blood vessels, and to create chorioretinal adhesions in retinal detachment surgery.
Light sensitivity to an uncomfortable degree; usually symptomatic of other ocular disorders or diseases.
The color throughout something.
A decrease in accommodative power (focusing at near) caused by the increasing inelasticity of the lens-ciliary muscle mechanism that occurs approximately anytime after the age of 40.
Special triangle-shaped lenses that are incorporated into regular eyeglasses, to redirect the rays of light entering the eye, resulting in a realignment of the eyes or, in some cases, a shifting of image to permit binocular vision.
The bending of light rays to focus on the retina. A refractive error is a condition such as myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism, caused by corneal irregularities, in which parallel rays of light are not brought in focus on the retina because of a defect in the shape of the eyeball or the refractive media of the eye.
A lens that's shape is a segment of a sphere. A convex (plus) lens is thicker in the center and is used to correct hyperopia; a concave (minus) lens is used to correct myopia. Other types of spherical lenses are biconvex (when both surfaces curve outward), plano-convex (a single-sided curve), biconcave (both surfaces curing inward), and plano-concave (when only one surface curves inward).
An extrinsic muscle imbalance that causes misalignment of the eyes; includes exotropia, esotropia, hypertropia, and hypotropia.
The sharpness of vision with respect to the ability to distinguish detail, often measured as the eye's ability to distinguish the details and shapes of objects at a designated distance; involves central (macular) vision.
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TVI's Guide to Teaching the ECC: An Activities Based Curriculum for Teaching Students who are Blind or Visually Impaired
Written specifically for fellow itinerant Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments (TVI’s), this book consists of over 400 activities and topic areas of discussion for instructing students in the Expanded Core Curriculum. The activities are age-neutral and multi-sensory and therefore can meet the needs of the broad range of students served on an itinerant caseload serving. The activities can be individualized to the students various learning modalities and scaffold in order to challenge students but ensure success. Select those activities that align with the student’s learning objects based on the student’s unique visual needs and academic and developmental level.
The core activities listed in the Activity section can be adapted to each thematic unit. These include:
In addition to the core activity areas, each of the 32 Thematic Units incorporates additional unique ECC concepts and skills providing you with a years’ worth of activities. These units are cyclical and can be used repeatedly to help students build on prior knowledge and develop a deeper understanding of concepts. Each unit includes suggestions for activity adaptation associated with the unit. These include lists of objects, possible community based experiences, environmental print, poems, children & young reader books, children's songs, pop culture songs, movies, and websites.
Unique Concepts within the Units include:
Although the intended audience of this resource is fellow Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments, special education teachers may find these activities beneficial to the students in their classrooms as the activities are multisensory and include life skills and concepts needed by all students. This resource, however, is not intended to take the place of a Teacher of Students with Visual Impairments (TVI). Readers are advised to consult their own TVI’s regarding instruction in the ECC and the unique visual needs of the student’s served in their programs.
Note: This curriculum is a digital pdf download. Once you make your purchase you will be directed to an order confirmation page where you will find the download link. This download will also be included on the receipt sent to the email address you provide. The pdf download can be found directly under the order number.
Each download is intended for single instructor use per copyright. Thank you for helping me preserve the content and not distributing copies to third parties.
Digital pdf download: 364 pages (11 pt font)
Publisher: Teaching Students with Visual Impairments
Author: Carmen Willings
Visual Efficiency & Magnifier Fluency Grab & Go ECC Supplements
This workbook is a pdf download that can be printed on demand for use with students. It contains five different types of worksheets for developing visual motor skills and near magnifier fluency skills particularly with the use of a video magnifier. As a supplement to the TVI’s Guide to the ECC, the worksheets correspond to each of the 32 ECC Thematic units. The worksheets, along with a list of environmental print for each thematic unit, are designed to help students refine their visual motor skills while reinforcing ECC concepts presented in the thematic units.
Visual Efficiency & Near Magnifier Fluency Worksheet Details:
Digital pdf download: 210 pages
Publisher: Teaching Students with Visual Impairments
Author: Carmen Willings