TIMELINE OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS
By: Carmen Willings
The history and documentation of visual impairments dates back to Biblical times. There are numerous references in the scriptures specific to blindness. These passages give us an insight into how visual impairments were perceived so many years ago. Clearly during this time, people with visual impairments were seen as helpless and dependent on others. The perception was that the cause of blindness could be attributed to the sin of the father.
It wasn't until 1260 that there is documentation that perceptions of people who were blind began to change. After King Louis the Ninth of France had suffered a defeat in the Sixth Crusade, he returned with an interest in charities. He endowed one of the first formal institutions for the blind. (Enabling Technologies, How braille Began) During this period there was no formal education available for those who were blind. Although braille had not yet been developed, some developed their own literacy methods in clever ways including a writing system of pinpricks and silk embroidered onto cardboard. The following are some important historical events in the history of the field of visual impairments.
1784 The first school for the blind was established in Paris, France by Valentine Hauy.
1791 First school for the blind established in Liverpool, England.
1793 France had first mandatory school for the blind
1808 Charles Barbier infents Ecriture Nocturne, or night writing, for use by French soldiers at night.
1827 James Gall publishes First Book for Teaching the Art of Reading to the Blind, the first English-language work in raised type.
1829 Louis Braille publishes an explanation of his embossed dot code (inspired by Barbie)
1829 The New England Asylum for the Blind (later the Perkins School for the Blind) was incorporated in Watertown, MA
1831 The New York Institution for the Education of the Blind (now the New York Institute for Special Education) was incorporated.
1832 The Pennsylvania Institution for the Instruction of the Blind (later the Overbrook School for the Blind) was founded.
1833 The Gospel of St. Mark was printed in Philadelphia. It was the first book in raised print in the United States.
1834 Louis Braille perfects the literary braille code.
1837 The Perkins School for the Blind establishes a printing plant, later named the Howe Memorial Press.
1839 A state-supported "normal school" for training general education teachers is started in Lexington, MA.
1854 France officially adopts braille as a reading mode for people who are blind.
1858 Seven states establish central printing house. APH.
1860 The Missouri School for the Blind becomes the first institute in the United States to use braille.
1872 The Scottish Education Act calls for educating children who are blind with sighted children.
1878 Joel W. Smith at the Perkins School for the Blind develops the American raised-point system, modeled closely on
braille, which became the foundation for American braille.
1879 Act to promote education of blind and establish quota funds. Quota funds brought about the American Printing
House for the blind (APH). It was established with federal money. APH was the first professional organization of blind workers. Materials from APH can be purchased with quota funds for students who are legally blind.
1893 Children 0-22 who are blind receive an education
1903 Helen Keller was the first student who is deaf/blind to receive a college degree.
1905 The New York Association for the Blind (now Lighthouse International) was founded.
1915 The National Society for the Prevention of Blindness was founded.
1918 The University of California offers the first university preparation courses for teachers of students who are blind.
1921 The American foundation for the Blind was founded.
1922 The Council for Exceptional Children was founded.
1929 The seeing Eye, the first dog guide school in the United States, was incorporated.
1931 The Library of Congress established the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped. It began distributing braille and recorded materials in accordance with the Pratt-Smoot Act of 1930.
1935 The Social Security Act is passed. It adopts the AMA's definition of legal blindness.
1940 The National Federation of the Blind was founded.
1947 The Perkins Brailler is designed and developed by David Abraham of Howe Press.
1948 Recording for the Blind (RFB) is established.
1954 The Pine Brook Report identifies different educational options for students who are blind or visually impaired and the type of teacher preparation required.
1960 US conducts a study outlined in the Comstock reports. Determined a need for O&M specialists.
1960 Boston College started the first university program for O&M instructors.
1961 The American council of the Blind was founded.
1966 The CEC Project on Professional Standards defined visually handicapped to include both blind and partially sighted.
1970 CCTVs become commercially available.
2000 Academy for certification of Vision Rehabilitation and Education Professionals is established.
2000 American Foundation for the Blind National Literacy center established.
2001 Bookshare, a source of downloadable books, was founded.
NOTE: I have assembled this list from online and offline resources. If you know of a discrepancy on this page please contact me so I can amend the entry. Thank You!
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TVI's Guide to Teaching the ECC: An Activities Based Curriculum for Teaching Students who are Blind or Visually Impaired
Written specifically for fellow itinerant Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments (TVI’s), this book consists of over 400 activities and topic areas of discussion for instructing students in the Expanded Core Curriculum. The activities are age-neutral and multi-sensory and therefore can meet the needs of the broad range of students served on an itinerant caseload serving. The activities can be individualized to the students various learning modalities and scaffold in order to challenge students but ensure success. Select those activities that align with the student’s learning objects based on the student’s unique visual needs and academic and developmental level.
The core activities listed in the Activity section can be adapted to each thematic unit. These include:
In addition to the core activity areas, each of the 32 Thematic Units incorporates additional unique ECC concepts and skills providing you with a years’ worth of activities. These units are cyclical and can be used repeatedly to help students build on prior knowledge and develop a deeper understanding of concepts. Each unit includes suggestions for activity adaptation associated with the unit. These include lists of objects, possible community based experiences, environmental print, poems, children & young reader books, children's songs, pop culture songs, movies, and websites.
Unique Concepts within the Units include:
Although the intended audience of this resource is fellow Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments, special education teachers may find these activities beneficial to the students in their classrooms as the activities are multisensory and include life skills and concepts needed by all students. This resource, however, is not intended to take the place of a Teacher of Students with Visual Impairments (TVI). Readers are advised to consult their own TVI’s regarding instruction in the ECC and the unique visual needs of the student’s served in their programs.
Note: This curriculum is a digital pdf download. Once you make your purchase you will be directed to an order confirmation page where you will find the download link. This download will also be included on the receipt sent to the email address you provide. The pdf download can be found directly under the order number.
Each download is intended for single instructor use per copyright. Thank you for helping me preserve the content and not distributing copies to third parties.
Digital pdf download: 364 pages (11 pt font)
Publisher: Teaching Students with Visual Impairments
Author: Carmen Willings
Visual Efficiency & Magnifier Fluency Grab & Go ECC Supplements
This workbook is a pdf download that can be printed on demand for use with students. It contains five different types of worksheets for developing visual motor skills and near magnifier fluency skills particularly with the use of a video magnifier. As a supplement to the TVI’s Guide to the ECC, the worksheets correspond to each of the 32 ECC Thematic units. The worksheets, along with a list of environmental print for each thematic unit, are designed to help students refine their visual motor skills while reinforcing ECC concepts presented in the thematic units.
Visual Efficiency & Near Magnifier Fluency Worksheet Details:
Digital pdf download: 210 pages
Publisher: Teaching Students with Visual Impairments
Author: Carmen Willings